Why in the Black sea has become a little fish?
Much worse than with the anchovy and sprats. is the case with the number of predatory fish in the Black sea. In the 1980-1990-ies completely disappeared the population of palamidi, tuna and mackerel. According to the hypothesis of the biologist Y. I. Sorokin from Noumea, on the annual migration paths of tuna and mackerel from the Marmara to the Black sea is irresistible “chemical barrier” is a giant city of Istanbul, all the waste of life in the city with a million residents flows directly into the waters of the Bosphorus. Not only Istanbul, but also all other Turkish seaside towns do not have sewage treatment facilities, resulting in pollution of the Black sea domestic and industrial wastewater.
At least 170 million people are living in all black sea countries, a tangible part of their waste of life and activity is in the Black sea.
Sewage of coastal cities, after cleaning, bring in the sea, it is harmless, even useful minerals that promote rapid plant growth. The trouble is that at the end of the twentieth century these nutrient mineral salts got into the Black sea too much, putting it on the brink of environmental catastrophe. Overfeeding marine ecosystems mineral salts is called eutrophication. The result of this, it is possible to observe on primarycontent sea of slime – filamentous unicellular green algae colonial green Alga, generously fueled by domestic sewage Anapa. The day the simplest tangle of seaweed balls almost doubled in size. In July in shallow water from Anapa to Blagoveschenskaya, grew a huge mass of seaweed balls, and reached 7500 tons! Unicellular algae kladofora prevents the growth of sea grass (eelgrass), green underwater meadows of eelgrass once covered all the sandy shallows. Balls unicellular colonial green Alga shade leaves of eelgrass, entangle and strangle its growth. The eelgrass meadow is the most beautiful underwater scenery and most lively habitat for various species of marine animals – crabs crustaceans-hermit crabs, seahorses, sea eagle, shrimp, etc.
In all black sea countries have laws restricting the place and time of catching target species of fish. Unfortunately, since the beginning of the 1990s, Turkish poachers, representing a fleet of fast schooners, become a real disaster for all black sea countries. They invade at night in someone else’s territorial water, within minutes they put up a network with beacons, as fast choose the network with the catch fish and immediately leave. In recent years, State marine inspection of Ukraine managed to achieve victory over the fish pirates in 2005 in our waters was seen only one poaching schooner. Active guests go on a fishing trip to Astrakhan or to the resorts of the Black sea. Despite the fact that the number of fish in the Black sea decreases every year, anglers can catch the bait and LaRocco, small mullet and black sea goby.
In the Black sea are still catching mackerel, increasingly appears lofar is evident to all lovers of fishing of horse mackerel on spinning. Azov-black sea sturgeon is now only found in the sea of Azov, he is listed in the Red Book.
Kalkan has always lived in the Black sea, and was known to the ancient Greek settlers, who lived on the shores of Tauris (Crimea). Kalkan (Scophthalmus maeoticus), a fish of the family Kalmanovich, large, carnivorous fish resembling a flounder, with a very tasty, tender meat. Twenty years ago at the fish markets of the black sea cities of Kalkan meat was sold at the price of beef. Now Kalkan is more expensive than a whole sturgeon, because it is very very rare fish. Kalkan spawns in spring in shallow water near the shore. During the spawning season to catch Kalkan can easily and a lot, but it can’t be! Catching ROE females of Kalkan, you can easily kill this type of fish. If Kalkan is impossible to catch during the spawning season, and to sell it at this time, neither in the market nor in the store is impossible. Sale of Kalkan in the period of spawning should be punished as poaching.
Another reason for the decreasing stocks of the Black sea is fishing with fixed Gill-net. In upon fishing, with cells 0.5–1 cm falls almost the entire black sea fish moving along the shore, except for a large mullet . In the Black sea is inhabited by 5 species of mullet. to are of trade — the mullet . the mullet, gray mullet, pelengas . Small fish and fry of fishermen is not necessary, but they just throw it on the Bank when she died.
Red mullet or goatfish ( barbus from the Latin — beard) is a fish belonging to the family of mullets.
Palamud (Pelamys sarda) is a fish of mackerel (Scombridae — Mackerel) is also called Bonito or palamida, fish for mackerel characteristic black and white stripes on the back. Garfish — a fish of prey, sometimes called the sea pike, the fish-needle. Lives in the Black sea in large flocks of prey. Gobies — (Gobiidae) — a family of fish squad okuneobraznyh (Perciformes), belong to the benthic coastal fish. Black sea horse mackerel -(Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus) – a variation of Atlantic horse mackerel, small fish inhabiting the Black sea.
In upon fishing are often caught jellyfish . which, coming into contact with fish, paralyze instantly, and kill her, before lifting the net.
Thus, set nets, destroying the young of all coastal species of fish, cause irreparable damage to fish stocks in the sea and the entire coastal ecological systems of the Black sea.