What kind of water suitable for the aquarium?
In aquarium practice is usually to use tap or well water, which in its properties is very diverse. Water is oxide of hydrogen (H2O) and consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. In the water many dissolved substances (oxygen 21%, nitrogen 76%, carbon dioxide of 0.3%). Water in contact with soil, plants, fish, the products of decay and alkaline earth elements, acquires new qualities. The water in the aquarium must be free of any impurity metals must not contain large amounts of salts of magnesium, calcium and any other components that are harmful to aquarium inhabitants.
In rural areas often use wells, river and lake water. Before pouring water in an aquarium must be heated to a temperature of 70 C, thereby partially release water from undesirable microorganisms.
Water, potable, and suitable for the aquarium, of course, if it’s not mineral water. At home to fill in the most suitable aquarium tap water, which in most geographical areas of our country is of medium stiffness with seasonal fluctuations within 8 – 12 ‘. Excessive chlorine in it, you can delete, defending water in non-metallic container for 1 – 2 days (complete disappearance of released bubbles), active aeration (10 -12 hours),filtration through activated carbon, adding to it the hyposulphite (thiosulphate) sodium (1 g/10 l) or by boiling for 10 minutes. The last method, the water loses oxygen and must be aerated.
The use of pond water is not recommended, and the water is rain and snow the city is not suitable for the aquarium, as it contains large amounts of harmful solid, liquid and gaseous state. In rural areas, the use of such water is possible, but it needs to be filtered from dust and other substances.
Before using water from natural sources it is necessary to keep some inexpensive fish and monitor their samochustvie.
After pouring the water in a new aquarium it start to happen complex processes. Begins rotting fallen away when planting plant matter, develops a large number of microorganisms, water may become transparent whitish-turbid. After some time most of them die because of lack of food and water again becomes transparent. To accelerate the emergence of a favorable environment for fish and plants, it is useful to add a little water and soil from a long-established, successful aquarium that already has a set of microorganisms.
If you lean over a well functioning aquarium, felt the faint smell of new-mown hay. Any other odor, such as ammonia or hydrogen sulfide, indicates the trouble of the processes occurring in the aquarium. In this case, you must make a thorough cleaning of the soil and change parts of water, and also to analyze the correctness of the contents of fish and plants and the observance of the rules of aquarium care.
* Suitable for aquarium clean, clear, containing all necessary for plant life micronutrients in water with a dH of 5-20. 2-15 KN”, pH 6.5-7.5.
“The aquarium. Practical advice”. V. Mikhailov
Increase hardness and salinity
Water hardness can be increased by dissolving in it different substances. Easiest way to increase permanent (non-carbonate) hardness. For this, we recommend to prepare a 10% solution of calcium chloride (this solution is sold in pharmacies) and 10% solution of magnesium sulfate (MgS04. 7H2O is the main component of Epsom salt, also sold in drugstores). To increase the hardness by 1 °dGH you need 100 liters of aquarium water add 18.3 ml of 10% solution Sasl2 or 19.7 ml of 10% solution of the MgS04. We recommend adding these solutions of about the same amounts as needed to maintain proper fish and plants, the ratio of the ions.
More difficult to increase carbonate hardness of water. Some guidance is suggested to put in water carbonate rocks (chalk, marble, dolomite, etc.). However, we must remember that the dissolution of these rocks in water occurs only in the presence of carbon dioxide:
CaCO3 + C02 + H2O -> CA(HCO3)2
The source of CO2 may serve as fish, sparkling water, special device, which will be explained later in this Chapter. When using this method of increasing carbonate hardness must be remembered that to increase dKH by 1 ° in 100 ml of water should dissolve 1.8 g of calcium carbonate CaCO3 or 1.5 g of magnesium carbonate MgCO3. Again note that it is better to take both of salt in equal amounts.
For keeping some fish (viviparous, tetragona, etc.) and some aquatic animals need water not only hard, but also having a sufficiently high total salinity. The usual recommendation often encountered in books on aquarium – add water to common salt (NaCI). This method seems to us not the most successful. First, increasing the concentration of ions Na+ and CL-, we break the overall ratio of ions in the water. Secondly, the excess of sodium ions adversely affects the development of many aquatic plants. Therefore, we recommend hobbyists to improve the overall salinity is to use a mixture of salts (sulfates and chlorides) of sodium and potassium with a predominance of the latter. You can use mixture: NaCl + K2SO4 or Na2SO4 + КCl. To calculate the required amount of each salt should know that in order to increase the salinity of 100 l of water 1 g/l (ppm) it is necessary to dissolve 100 g of a mixture of these salts.