The device of the ponds for maintenance and cultivation
For the keeping, breeding and rearing fish use of different ponds: lined, dug, used peat quarries and instream ponds, cages and basins, small reservoirs and lakes.
The operation and construction of pond intended for fish production, requires compliance with certain rules, which correspond to fish and hydraulic requirements. First, you should determine the orientation of use of the reservoir, i.e. it is designed for the cultivation of food fish or for use in the design of the site. This will depend on its size, the device of the reservoir, depth, shape, mode of operation.
A pond for the cultivation of food fish is very different from the devices of decoration. To this reservoir are a bit different requirements. It does not make sense to do complex bottom topography, indented coastline, depths off the coast, laying on a bed of special soil, decorative elements. The main attention should be paid to the layout of the bed of the pond, the supply of the reset options and a good water supply. Fish farming will benefit, assuming the decision of questions of operation of the reservoir and construction. If the device pool determines much the size of the land plot, which is released under the dispensing reservoir. On the one hand, this ustroistvom or group of water bodies on a farm with a large land area, with another pond in the garden. We must remember that the pond in the garden mostly satisfied mostly your own needs, while the farmer needs to determine how important will be the farming in agricultural production. Following from this, determine its place in economic activity. Perhaps it will be agriculture, where the cultivation of fish will be your main activity or fish farming will become an integral part of the farm with the use of the reservoir complex. The latter area has received wide distribution as well as cultivation of fish goes well with other branches of agricultural production. Hence in the construction of the pond should not exclude the possibility of comprehensive use, for example for watering livestock, watering the garden, fire fighting purposes, breeding waterfowl.
Ponds can be of different types: run-of-river or deboned, dug. Preference is given to lined ponds, as there is an opportunity to make them bleed. They usually have a higher natural productivity and easy to operate. To build the pond, you need two essential conditions: availability of water in required quantities and suitable land. Special attention should be paid to the choice of location for the construction of the pond. Sometimes it turns out that the land requires little expenditure and can be used as a pond, for example, when the stream flows through the plot with greater or lesser slope, or a natural indentation. On this site it is possible to make not one, but several ponds. The ponds are obtained when a small deep and steep grades, in this case the construction requires large amounts of earthworks. A place that is suitable for the construction of the pond is a ravine with a small longitudinal slope and gentle slopes, and areas with a slight slope, they are building ponds, raising of the dam along the perimeter. Great value when choosing the site has the character of the soil. That would eliminate the possibility of excessive loss of water through seepage – soil should have low permeability. Most suitable for the construction of ponds in areas with clay and loamy soils, meadow soils and sandy soils, soils containing large amounts of gravel are not suitable for the construction of the pond, as the powerful’ filter the water, this leads to big losses. But these soils are also used for the pond, and the strengthening of slopes, dams, and his box with plastic wrap. The top film is covered in soil.
A waterproof bed will be provided only if impermeable layers (clay, loam), underlain by soil, are deposited over the entire area close to the surface, and a thickness of less than 0.5 m. To determine the ability of soils to filter water, take several samples of soil at different distances from the surface, put them in a glass jar, poured into water and the mixture well stirred. After settling, the layers of clay particles and sand visually determined by their ratio, therefore, evaluates the permeability in the place where it is planned to construct. When soils are loam or clay more than 30 %, this indicates the reliability of the underlying layer. In sand and sandy loams, the proportion of clay particles is not more than 10 %, in this case the bed of the pond was covered with tape, as these soils are highly filtered water. Very important is the water of the pond. The quantity and quality of water available for water supply pond will be decisive when selecting fish for breeding, this also depends on the cultivation technology. With regard to water quality. it must conform to basic fish requirements. To determine its chemical composition, i.e. to make the water quality analysis in the laboratory, fish farm, or on any sanitary-epidemiological station, or agrochemical laboratory. Water should be odor free of different weights, flavors and duckweed. Is not permitted the presence in water of methane and poisonous substances, free chlorine, hydrogen sulfide. Special attention to the quantity and quality of water is given during the construction of the pond, which is suitable for growing trout.
For water ponds use a variety of sources: streams, rivers, springs, keys, artesian wells, etc. Water is supplied by gravity through pipes or channels, when the pond is below the water source, or by means of a pump.