Puzzles of the Black sea
What is the ecological status of the Black sea, whether Unliquidated consequences of ecological catastrophe in the Black sea?
Ecological disaster in Black sea are related mainly to three causes. The first is the flow of the rivers. Let’s not forget that a fairly large European rivers flow into this sea. First of all, the Danube is 200 cubic kilometers per year. Don via the sea of Azov, actually also falls. But the main thing – the Dnieper, the Dniester river, the Rioni, the number of rivers of Turkey. So actually the flow is large, all that Europe produces, or grows in their fields the fertilizer is washed into the Black sea. Therefore, the so-called nutrient runoff, the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers leads to the fact that the Black sea began to bloom, like a normal pond. By the way, happens in the Baltic sea, which is likewise closed off from the main part of the ocean. Sea blossoms due to the fact that an additional amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the surface layer, planktonic organisms, it is used, remains die, sink to the bottom, in shallow water at depths of 10-40 meters, and begins the rotting process additional amounts of these residues, leading to the so-called kill the phenomena, which occur in the pond during winter consumed all the oxygen. Not even in the layer 150-200 m and at depths of 10-20-30 meters,in the North-Western region adjacent to Odessa and to the mouth of the Dnieper, there’s the kill phenomena are very common. And the North-Western part of what is important – there is a very wide shelves. There is a formation of juvenile fish, nageli, and so on. Therefore, this zone is key. The second very important ecological problem associated with accidents of tankers. And there are accidents of tankers that are due to natural processes we all remember the famous storm of 2007, when the tanker broke. They were adapted mainly for river transportation of oil, not for serious storm conditions. Waves of 8-9 meters, which broke several of these tankers. The most dangerous environmental disaster was in the region of the Kerch Strait. It is known that the colder the water, and this November and December, the slower elimination of consequences, not even associated with cleaning the shores and the fact that oil degrades slowly. So this oil a few years was observed in the Sands, even in coastal. And finally, a very interesting third kind is the so-called invasive species. This is a real ecological disaster. When the Soviet Union became a grain transport grain from America, in the holds they were brought (when he hijacked somewhere in the Houston area and new Orleans their tanks) small Grinevitsky. This is a small semi-liquid substance, not even a jellyfish, like this little pickle. This grinevicha, Mnemiopsis leidyi, ate all the plankton, eaten by fish. As a result, sharply reduced the number of black sea jellyfish, it happened during the 80-ies. Fell sharply the yields. Here’s grinevicha. Luckily, in the 90-ies in the Black sea checked another squatter, which is a natural enemy of this Mnemiopsis, and began to eat away. The situation has stabilized, again there were jelly fish, increased the number of fish. But there is one problem – the irruption of Mnemiopsis – April-may, and the predator, devouring him, appears by the second half of the summer. So the main thing is to survive the first half of the summer. Another famous riddle of the Black sea – is not so much a mystery as introduced species. Rapana is a shell, which they must buy, when you come to Crimea, to the Caucasus is also a squatter. He arrived in the Black sea from Japanese. And again, it has no natural enemies, it eats away everything, and it is very difficult to deal with it. But, they say that in recent years the number of shellfish has decreased, and in cafes and restaurants also decreased the number of salads made from Rapana. The number of tourists does not change, but we must clearly understand that tourism is Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russia, to a lesser extent Georgia. Turkey and its black sea coast left as a nature reserve, without spending money – for them it is the cold sea, where a short bathing season. The shore faces North, it is still a little dark. And there are not developing tourist recreational facilities, all focused on the Mediterranean and Aegean.
Is it possible to create protected areas on the territory of the Russian part of the Black sea, there is a need, what we need to focus?
I said that the North-Western shelf is very important from the point of view of foraging fish, the occurrence of any events kill. So you need to save in two ways, the first is to dramatically reduce the discharge of nitrate fertilizers phosphate fertilizers in basins of the rivers – Danube, Dnieper, Dniester, and don. And then there will be fewer such events. Secondly, control of invasive species is a very difficult task because now with the whole world going tankers at the Novorossiysk, for example. They washed their ballast water, and then red sea fish, for example, were caught in the Black sea, although salinity does not need to survive there. Sredizemnomorskie Barracuda somewhere near Balaklava were caught. Plus, we understand that the Danube river is connected by canals with the North sea. If there is intra-European channels, also the animals may come from one pool to another, not to have there natural enemies and dramatically change the ecological situation. Therefore, the reserve – I think in Turkey it’s all real, and the black sea coast of Russia, of Ukraine – it’s all quite difficult because it is expensive. There are around villas which around create a local nature reserve. But the marine reserve General use about the talks, but so far it is quite difficult. Moreover, we understand that there are oil and gas. The same North-Western part of Ukraine already gives a fairly decent percentage of its production. They can’t, having no other reserves, to leave this only as a recreational area.