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A marine aquarium at home

Among Hobbies breed in the home fish stands out marine aquarium. The occupation is more troublesome than keeping a freshwater aquarium, and requires specific knowledge and skills. A saltwater aquarium requires a much larger area, as well as certain equipment and the correct selection of all living organisms.

Whoever decided to acquire your personal sea must remember that the marine aquarium it is a science, and need to prepare for the thorny path. The sea in the house is possible, but it will take a lot of effort, patience, and desire to learn large amounts of information, as well as regular maintenance of marine aquarium.

Choosing a saltwater aquarium and a place for him

The sea aquarium has one property, very similar to those of fresh-water: the more volume, the more stable the balance of the ecosystem inside it. But in the pursuit of great volume, it is important not to forget about the proportions of the aquarium: the aquarium is very difficult, if it has too high walls.

The equipment of a marine aquarium should be placed so that, when performing its functions, it does not spoil the interior of the room. That is why, very often you can find marine aquariums installed in niches or on special podiums: at the bottom, underneath, and on each side is all external equipment. In a niche above markkinatalouden should be free space: it will be easier to clean. feed the fish and perform other manipulations. Continue reading

The water balance of the Black sea.

The main feature of the water balance of the Black sea is a significant excess river runoff (river in the sea bring about 355 km 3 of water per year) and precipitation over evaporation, so the water level in the Black sea 9-12 cm higher than the Mediterranean sea. Elevated levels constant due to surface runoff from the Black sea of Marmara. Surface runoff and prevailing North-easterly winds are the main pathogens circular system of currents in the Black sea clockwise, emerging in the North-Western part. Tidal currents in the Black sea is weak, the oscillation amplitude no more than 8 cm, Often they are clouded wind-tide phenomena.

Demersal waters over the Mediterranean, flowing through the Bosporus (Marmara from the Black sea to flow over the year of around 193 km 3 of water) Strait and spreading over the deep basin, plays a significant role in the hydrological regime of the Black sea. Waters of the Mediterranean sea are higher than the average oceanic salinity (about 38%), the density is much greater than the freshened surface water (to 1,017). This leads to the stable layer-by-layer shallow water, poor mixing, different as salt, temperature and gas regimes of these layers. Thus, the salinity in niinemaa (deeper than 150-200 m) in the Black sea up to 22 % 0 and slightly more at the bottom and in tribesperson area. The surface layers have a salinity of 17-18%, declining to 16%on the coast and up to 13% 0 th North-Western part of the sea. There is water exchange between the Black and Azov seas.

The water temperature of the upper layer in summer in the open sea reaches 25°, and in the shallow waters and in estuaries up to 28° C. At depths of 100-200 m and deeper temperature do not experience seasonal changes and to the bottom remains constant year round (about 8-9°). In winter, the surface waters of the Black sea are very cool, but only in the North-West and North-East areas the temperature can drop below zero (to -1.4°), with the sea in some years is covered with ice. Throughout the rest of the sea, and especially in the southern parts, the surface layers retain a temperature of about 8° C, i.e. equal to a constant temperature of depths, which impedes the convective mixing of waters even in the winter. Continue reading

White sharks and shark-Mako in Primorye were always

The waters of the island Russian (Russky Island ) during the APEC summit 2012 in Vladivostok (apec 2012. Vladivostok ) will be patrolling white sharks and shark-Mako. One of them was June 23, has already inspected the Bay Rynda (Rynda Bay. Peter the Great Bay ).

Dangerous to humans shark species swim in the waters of the sea of Japan, Primorye coast much earlier than was thought, – IA “Primorje” .

Toothy predator, which is traditionally considered “tropical” the inhabitants may feel quite comfortable and in the cold water of the sea of Japan. This was stated by senior researcher of the Institute of marine biology Feb RAS, doctor of biological Sciences Vladimir DOLGANOV.

It was Vladimir Nikolaevich investigated two shark attacks 2011 in telyakovsky Bay and off the island Zheltukhina in the sea of Japan.

A scientist is considered a leading expert on sharks in the far East. According to him, information about large dangerous sharks, for example, white, prefer warm water with the temperature above 18 degrees, outdated.

White sharks, known in the press sharks-cannibals, have seen and caught off the coast of Japan and Sakhalin at water temperatures just plus 7 and even 5 degrees .

“These sharks are pyuterlakskaya, they have a slightly warmer body of water. So they can afford to come in more holodnyiy. Also it has been proved that white sharks can dive up to 100 meters and spend quite a long time. And agree, 18 degrees there is no,” says the Dolgans. Continue reading

The black sea reveals the secrets

Research expedition programme “Black sea 2006”, organized by the Institute of archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Institute for archaeological Oceanography University of Rhode island USA (headed by Robert Ballard), was a planned search and investigation of underwater objects of cultural heritage of Ukraine in the Black sea on the shelf of the Crimea Peninsula from Cape Chersonese to Cape Meganom (as in the territorial waters of Ukraine and in its Maritime economic zone).

The main purpose of the expedition was to check the location 112 of the objects that are on the state account in the Institute of archaeology and coordinates are transferred to the state archival Fund of Ukraine, Russia, Germany, great Britain, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania. The program included not only the search of sunken objects, but also their certification.

Search and research was conducted by research vessels of Ukraine and the USA as the fleet and in the terms approved by the program. The composition of the fleet consisted of: research vessel “Endeavor” (USA), the ship “Nautilus-1” (Ukraine), the ship “Frigate” (Ukraine), diving boat “RUMB” (Ukraine), diving boat “avalon” (Ukraine).

On bartusov was search the following equipment: side-scan sonars “HBO-100” with an operating frequency of 100 kHz (Ukraine) and “Echo” (USA) double the range of frequencies 100 and 400 kHz and a maximum limit of 3000 m. the object Identification was made remote-controlled underwater vehicles with remote control “Hercules” and “Arus” (USA). Continue reading

Long-tailed denizens of the deep (Grenadier)

Despite the fact that seas and oceans have long attracted the attention of the person as a means of communication and a source of food, until the nineteenth century, even among scientists prevailed a strong belief that at great depths there are no living beings. For example, the famous biologist Edward Forbes asserted that life is under great pressure as unthinkable, as in a vacuum.

“The last sparks of life fade on pjatisotmetrovyj depth”, — he wrote in 1840.

However, less than two decades, as we found out, many organisms live much deeper. Scientific expeditions performed in different countries in the first half of the twentieth century, showed that life penetrates even to the most extreme depths of the ocean: in 1960, the famous Explorer, Jacques Piccard, sunken bathyscaphe “Trieste” to the bottom of the Mariana trench, has found an unknown number of fish and invertebrates at a depth of about 11 km And yet for some time it was believed that, while life in the oceans exists everywhere, inhabitants of great depths is quite small. Only the results of large-scale fisheries issledovaniy–60-ies of XX century allowed to come to the conclusion that the strength of a number of fish at depths greater than 200-300 m high, they form dense clusters and can even serve as objects of hunting. One of the most characteristic and popular representatives of the demersal deep-sea fish, leading gregarious way of life, are dolgopoly . or Grenadier .

These fish are widespread from the Arctic waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to Antarctica, inhabiting depths from 300 to 4000 m, but in some areas (including Pacific waters of Kamchatka and the Northern Kuril Islands) often rise to 150-200 m.

All Grenadier are distinguished by their elongated, converging on the body, which often extended in the form of thread, because of what the British call them “chrysocolla”. Tail fin as such these fish is missing. Grenadier usually uniformly colored in a grayish-brown, brown or coal-black tones. Continue reading

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