The device of the ponds for maintenance and cultivation

For the keeping, breeding and rearing fish use of different ponds: lined, dug, used peat quarries and instream ponds, cages and basins, small reservoirs and lakes.

The operation and construction of pond intended for fish production, requires compliance with certain rules, which correspond to fish and hydraulic requirements. First, you should determine the orientation of use of the reservoir, i.e. it is designed for the cultivation of food fish or for use in the design of the site. This will depend on its size, the device of the reservoir, depth, shape, mode of operation.

A pond for the cultivation of food fish is very different from the devices of decoration. To this reservoir are a bit different requirements. It does not make sense to do complex bottom topography, indented coastline, depths off the coast, laying on a bed of special soil, decorative elements. The main attention should be paid to the layout of the bed of the pond, the supply of the reset options and a good water supply. Fish farming will benefit, assuming the decision of questions of operation of the reservoir and construction. If the device pool determines much the size of the land plot, which is released under the dispensing reservoir. On the one hand, this ustroistvom or group of water bodies on a farm with a large land area, with another pond in the garden. We must remember that the pond in the garden mostly satisfied mostly your own needs, while the farmer needs to determine how important will be the farming in agricultural production. Following from this, determine its place in economic activity. Perhaps it will be agriculture, where the cultivation of fish will be your main activity or fish farming will become an integral part of the farm with the use of the reservoir complex. The latter area has received wide distribution as well as cultivation of fish goes well with other branches of agricultural production. Hence in the construction of the pond should not exclude the possibility of comprehensive use, for example for watering livestock, watering the garden, fire fighting purposes, breeding waterfowl. Continue reading

Ross-Fish Farms

Farms (fish farm) is located 14 km North-West S. ROS district of the Moscow region. The area is characterized by the development of mostly marine sediments and high pasture. Laboratornye and ground water is hydrocarbonate-chloride-calcium type. The fish farm is located in water-ecological zone.

The economy territory with the one hand limit of the Cretaceous mountains on the other – the key and a field with perennial grasses. Land not classified as agricultural land and located in slaboperesechennoy the floodplain of streams. Much of the land occupied trees and shrubs. The ichthyofauna of small streams: common gudgeon, loach moustached, verhovka ordinary.

The Key Belogorsk meets trout brook. Ulyanovsk region to treat the area III pond fish farming, as a sufficiently favorable climatic conditions for growing heat-loving fish species. However, the temperature of the water of the fish farm does not exceed 12. 14 °C. the spring water that feeds these ponds, contains little nutrients, sludge is poor in organic substances so that they poorly developed plankton and benthos. The productivity of such reservoirs are non-nutritive.

The objects of fish farming can be fish that require low temperatures, high oxygen content in water and consuming artificial feed. Passing through the ponds, spring water lingers and warms up. In the last cascadeproef the water temperature in summer is 25. 27°S. These waters are used for cultivation of carp and sturgeon. Continue reading

The water balance of the Black sea.

The main feature of the water balance of the Black sea is a significant excess river runoff (river in the sea bring about 355 km 3 of water per year) and precipitation over evaporation, so the water level in the Black sea 9-12 cm higher than the Mediterranean sea. Elevated levels constant due to surface runoff from the Black sea of Marmara. Surface runoff and prevailing North-easterly winds are the main pathogens circular system of currents in the Black sea clockwise, emerging in the North-Western part. Tidal currents in the Black sea is weak, the oscillation amplitude no more than 8 cm, Often they are clouded wind-tide phenomena.

Demersal waters over the Mediterranean, flowing through the Bosporus (Marmara from the Black sea to flow over the year of around 193 km 3 of water) Strait and spreading over the deep basin, plays a significant role in the hydrological regime of the Black sea. Waters of the Mediterranean sea are higher than the average oceanic salinity (about 38%), the density is much greater than the freshened surface water (to 1,017). This leads to the stable layer-by-layer shallow water, poor mixing, different as salt, temperature and gas regimes of these layers. Thus, the salinity in niinemaa (deeper than 150-200 m) in the Black sea up to 22 % 0 and slightly more at the bottom and in tribesperson area. The surface layers have a salinity of 17-18%, declining to 16%on the coast and up to 13% 0 th North-Western part of the sea. There is water exchange between the Black and Azov seas.

The water temperature of the upper layer in summer in the open sea reaches 25°, and in the shallow waters and in estuaries up to 28° C. At depths of 100-200 m and deeper temperature do not experience seasonal changes and to the bottom remains constant year round (about 8-9°). In winter, the surface waters of the Black sea are very cool, but only in the North-West and North-East areas the temperature can drop below zero (to -1.4°), with the sea in some years is covered with ice. Throughout the rest of the sea, and especially in the southern parts, the surface layers retain a temperature of about 8° C, i.e. equal to a constant temperature of depths, which impedes the convective mixing of waters even in the winter. Continue reading

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