Much worse than with the anchovy and sprats. is the case with the number of predatory fish in the Black sea. In the 1980-1990-ies completely disappeared the population of palamidi, tuna and mackerel. According to the hypothesis of the biologist Y. I. Sorokin from Noumea, on the annual migration paths of tuna and mackerel from the Marmara to the Black sea is irresistible “chemical barrier” is a giant city of Istanbul, all the waste of life in the city with a million residents flows directly into the waters of the Bosphorus. Not only Istanbul, but also all other Turkish seaside towns do not have sewage treatment facilities, resulting in pollution of the Black sea domestic and industrial wastewater.
At least 170 million people are living in all black sea countries, a tangible part of their waste of life and activity is in the Black sea.
Sewage of coastal cities, after cleaning, bring in the sea, it is harmless, even useful minerals that promote rapid plant growth. The trouble is that at the end of the twentieth century these nutrient mineral salts got into the Black sea too much, putting it on the brink of environmental catastrophe. Overfeeding marine ecosystems mineral salts is called eutrophication. The result of this, it is possible to observe on primarycontent sea of slime – filamentous unicellular green algae colonial green Alga, generously fueled by domestic sewage Anapa. The day the simplest tangle of seaweed balls almost doubled in size. In July in shallow water from Anapa to Blagoveschenskaya, grew a huge mass of seaweed balls, and reached 7500 tons! Unicellular algae kladofora prevents the growth of sea grass (eelgrass), green underwater meadows of eelgrass once covered all the sandy shallows. Balls unicellular colonial green Alga shade leaves of eelgrass, entangle and strangle its growth. The eelgrass meadow is the most beautiful underwater scenery and most lively habitat for various species of marine animals – crabs crustaceans-hermit crabs, seahorses, sea eagle, shrimp, etc. Continue reading
Polychaete worms (polychaetes, a type of round worms) usually occur in the coastal zone. Buried in the sand, they expect the tide to lean out from his hiding place. These are pushily – the inhabitants of the sandy shallows. But there is deep-sea polychaetes, such as Nereid pelagic, living in the soft mud in the depths of the White sea.
“Pelagic” is called the organisms living in the pelagic – in the water or on its surface. Why is the bottom dweller of the Nereid called pelagic? It turns out that once a year, in summer, long Arctic day, all Nereids float to the surface to spawn. It is unclear how the worms managed to simultaneously leave their homes and that is their signal to the ascent. Spawning Nereids light for fish and marine birds – “time to eat”. Caviar Nereids eating not only animals. Fried eggs this large worm, similar in flavor to fried, is a favorite dish of the locals.
ANGEL, DEVOURING THE HELL
Far from shore in the water column hovering angel. This is a small krilangi clam, smoothly waving translucent pinkish wings – outgrowths on the foot. Angelfish hovers vertically in the water, amazing grace. Looking at this miracle, and not think that before us is a voracious predator, the main production of which smaller predator – krilangi clam monkfish.
Monkfish malchevskogo angel and painted, as befits the devil, in black color. His defense is a fragile shell, where he hides when in danger. But the angel of the sea shell is not a hindrance. Easily destroying its tentacles, pulls the angel in the hell mouth. In translucent the body of Angela long will be seen the traces of “black Affairs” – the remains swallowed by hell. Continue reading
What is the ecological status of the Black sea, whether Unliquidated consequences of ecological catastrophe in the Black sea?
Ecological disaster in Black sea are related mainly to three causes. The first is the flow of the rivers. Let’s not forget that a fairly large European rivers flow into this sea. First of all, the Danube is 200 cubic kilometers per year. Don via the sea of Azov, actually also falls. But the main thing – the Dnieper, the Dniester river, the Rioni, the number of rivers of Turkey. So actually the flow is large, all that Europe produces, or grows in their fields the fertilizer is washed into the Black sea. Therefore, the so-called nutrient runoff, the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers leads to the fact that the Black sea began to bloom, like a normal pond. By the way, happens in the Baltic sea, which is likewise closed off from the main part of the ocean. Sea blossoms due to the fact that an additional amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the surface layer, planktonic organisms, it is used, remains die, sink to the bottom, in shallow water at depths of 10-40 meters, and begins the rotting process additional amounts of these residues, leading to the so-called kill the phenomena, which occur in the pond during winter consumed all the oxygen. Not even in the layer 150-200 m and at depths of 10-20-30 meters,in the North-Western region adjacent to Odessa and to the mouth of the Dnieper, there’s the kill phenomena are very common. And the North-Western part of what is important – there is a very wide shelves. There is a formation of juvenile fish, nageli, and so on. Therefore, this zone is key. Continue reading