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How to grow coral reef in a saltwater aquarium

The aquarium except marine fish are also produced and corals called reef marine aquarium. Fast-growing corals – usually of the genus Montipora, Acropora, Pocillopora and grow in the aquarium polyp for polyp until until grows a micro-reef.

Light for corals

The word “micro-reef” very often means just a small marine reef aquarium. Coral planting in artificial conditions requires intense lighting, which is rather expensive. Therefore, the smaller the size of aquarium, the less need for coverage, the cheaper it costs.

The need for intensive lighting because the light having the wavelength required for photosynthesis, passing through the water, fades with increasing depth. For illumination with a sufficient intensity of a small light bulb aquarium requires lower power than for lighting large. Besides that they consume less electricity they are also cheaper. Another their advantage is that they are less likely to heat the water. When the aquarium light should know that excessive light is as harmful to corals as weak.

Sea current in the aquarium

A saltwater aquarium requires water circulation. Motion credif places natural growth of coral reefs is very strong. Currents, tides provide a powerful turbulent motion of sea water, which cleanses the mucus from corals, sediments and rock fragments. At the same time it provides the coral with nutrients and oxygen. Therefore, the circulation of water in marine aquariums is essential. Unfortunately, you know it’s not all aquarists. Continue reading

Why in the Black sea has become a little fish?

Much worse than with the anchovy and sprats. is the case with the number of predatory fish in the Black sea. In the 1980-1990-ies completely disappeared the population of palamidi, tuna and mackerel. According to the hypothesis of the biologist Y. I. Sorokin from Noumea, on the annual migration paths of tuna and mackerel from the Marmara to the Black sea is irresistible “chemical barrier” is a giant city of Istanbul, all the waste of life in the city with a million residents flows directly into the waters of the Bosphorus. Not only Istanbul, but also all other Turkish seaside towns do not have sewage treatment facilities, resulting in pollution of the Black sea domestic and industrial wastewater.

At least 170 million people are living in all black sea countries, a tangible part of their waste of life and activity is in the Black sea.

Sewage of coastal cities, after cleaning, bring in the sea, it is harmless, even useful minerals that promote rapid plant growth. The trouble is that at the end of the twentieth century these nutrient mineral salts got into the Black sea too much, putting it on the brink of environmental catastrophe. Overfeeding marine ecosystems mineral salts is called eutrophication. The result of this, it is possible to observe on primarycontent sea of slime – filamentous unicellular green algae colonial green Alga, generously fueled by domestic sewage Anapa. The day the simplest tangle of seaweed balls almost doubled in size. In July in shallow water from Anapa to Blagoveschenskaya, grew a huge mass of seaweed balls, and reached 7500 tons! Unicellular algae kladofora prevents the growth of sea grass (eelgrass), green underwater meadows of eelgrass once covered all the sandy shallows. Balls unicellular colonial green Alga shade leaves of eelgrass, entangle and strangle its growth. The eelgrass meadow is the most beautiful underwater scenery and most lively habitat for various species of marine animals – crabs crustaceans-hermit crabs, seahorses, sea eagle, shrimp, etc. Continue reading

Safety on the beach

Jellyfish are attacking the Mediterranean. Biologists-marine painters, studying the waters, is known among the most numerous and diverse populations of marine fauna, are sounding the alarm. If these invertebrates will continue to proliferate at such a pace, will not stand not only marine life, but vacationers here in the summer tourists.

According to Professor Stefano Piraino of Salento University in southern Italy, all 300 (!) kilometers of the beach, which he managed to fly on April 21, swarming with jellyfish. Himself Piraino heads the project control the population of jellyfish in the Mediterranean sea. The shift of the biological balance in the waters in favor of the jellyfish is due, firstly, global warming and, secondly, is due to excessive capture of fish and other edible inhabitants. In addition to jellyfish, thousands of miles of the Mediterranean coast there is no release from tourists onlookers. These “scientists with the air of a connoisseur” and armed with smartphones and “Apple”, relentlessly chasing an umbrella. During the four years of work of specialists in the framework of the mentioned project, the population of jellyfish is only increasing. Experts attribute this phenomenon to global warming. Convince them that the data that come from other areas of the world: is there a process develops in a similar way. Piraino says that on the island of Lampedusa, where the annual resting of about three hundred thousand tourists, you can swim only week of the whole summer. The rest of the time the water is filled with jellyfish.

But that said, the biologist, studying jellyfish at the Institute of Oceanology of Barcelona Jose Maria Gili: “jellyfish have increasingly become a problem around the world, the Mediterranean is no exception. And the farther away from the shore, so they are more insidious and harder to fight them”. This spring off the coast of Valencia Catalogue and specialists of the Institute have recorded a surge of population flowing down jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca . which is one of the most poisonous members of the species. Continue reading

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