Great white shark
Great white shark, the heroine of the novel by P. Benchley “Jaws” and the movie of the same name, has a bad reputation as man-eater. Yes, it is the world’s largest predatory fish and a great hunter. But if she is so bloodthirsty towards people as we are shown in various films?
Great white shark (lat. Carcharodon carcharias) (Fig. Great white shark)
In Australia it is called “white death”, but to deal with her not only here, but in almost all coastal waters of the major oceans except the Arctic. She was chosen as cool temperate and warm tropical water.
Small colonies of white sharks are regularly observed at the southern coast of Australia, off the coast of California and South Africa, in the Red sea, in the Central part of the Adriatic and the Mediterranean sea, off the coast of New Zealand, in the Caribbean sea, off Madagascar, Kenya, Seychelles and the coast of Mauritius. This, of course, not all places where you can accidentally encounter this formidable mistress of the seas and oceans.
The habitat of the great white shark
But the ichthyologist was able to find a couple of great white sharks favorite places. The first is near Hawaii, where they meet by the hundreds. Scientists have nicknamed this place the “White shark Cafe”. It is a great place to observe and study the lives of these animals. And the second is the coastal waters of the Dyer island (South Africa).
Occasionally great white sharks organize migration. Allocate 2 main routes: the first runs from Baja California (Mexico) and from “White shark Café” (white shark Café) and back, and the second from the shores of South Africa and to the southern coast of Australia. What is this annual migration while none of the scientists just can not say.
Most of the time the shark spends in the upper water column. But sometimes it can dive to a depth of 1000 meters.
The great white shark possesses a number of characteristics that distinguish it among other types. First, is the size of it. Average adult length is 2.5 to 3.5 – meter specimens and larger – up to 5-6 meters. Some argue that this is not the limit, and great white sharks can grow to 7 metres, but the true facts of this was found. The largest caught by an instance of currently known shark with a length of 6.4 meters, caught in 1945 in Cuban waters. 5-6 metre shark may weigh from 700 kg to 2.5 tonnes.
Second, protective coating. Back and head of a shark painted in a dark gray color. This allows it to remain unnoticed for mining, floating on top, as its dark shadow dissolving in dark blue water. The lower part of the oblong body is light. Look at the shark from below, I understand that bright belly allows it to “get lost” at the water surface on the background of the bright sky.
Grey back and white belly
Thirdly, the shape of the body. The white shark has a large head tapered shape. Large pectoral fins are powerful helps keep the body afloat.
And, fourthly, her powerful jaws with huge teeth, which are the perfect murder weapon. Pressure force with which a shark clenches its jaw, is almost several tons per 1 cm2. This allows a predator to easily eat large animals in half or bite off any part of the human body.
Like many sharks, the teeth are arranged in 3 rows. Each tooth is provided with notches, which perform a kind of role saw while tearing pieces of meat from the body of the prey. In case of loss of front teeth, they quickly replaced rear.
The shark tooth with a jagged edge
White shark became famous for his sharp instincts and a complete promiscuity in food. The special senses the nose (“ampoules Lorenzii&rdquo allow them to catch and recognize the slightest electrical impulses and odors over large distances, and in particular this applies to the smell of blood. They can smell 1 drop of blood in 100 litres of water. So while hunting sharks rely solely on my instincts. But the vision they have is unimportant.
In principle, white sharks attack humans only in very rare cases. The main reason is the lack of food. Fish, tuna, seals, squid, sea lions, other sharks, and dolphins. Hungry sharks are very aggressive and ready to rush to any item that they see or feel, whether human or various waste. While searching for prey they can get very close to the shore.
Their favorite “dish” are a little chunky sea lions, seals or large fish. Fatty foods provides energy and helps to maintain a high body temperature. These voracious sharks also will not name. Thanks to the special structure of the stomach (they have a “spare” stomach) they eat every day.
Tactics of attack white shark variety. It all depends on what the sharks ‘ minds. These fierce predators are very curious animals. The only way for her to study his object of curiosity is to try it “to the tooth”. Scientists call these bites “research”. It is their receiving floating on the surface of the surfers or divers, a shark because of its weak vision takes for seals or sea lions. Making sure that it’s “bony extraction” is not a seal the shark can keep up with a person if she is not too hungry, of course.
Great white shark attacks, making lightning shot from below. At this point she tries to inflict the victim with a powerful bite that gives little chance of survival. Huntress then sail a short distance to the victim in fits of protection could not hurt her face, a little bleeding and weakened.
Female white sharks give birth to two cubs. In this species, like some others, a common phenomenon as cainism, when a stronger and more developed babies eat their less developed “brothers and sisters”. The sharks it is still inside the female, when 2 more developed calves start to eat all the remaining brood and unfertilized eggs.
Curiosity is not a sin
According to official statistics every year are subjected to shark attacks from 80 to 110 people (considered the total number of recorded attacks all species of sharks), one of them fatal – from 1 to 17. If the result of comparison, every year people destroy about 100 million sharks. And who of them should be called a dangerous predator?